- Also know as “Sulphur Shelf” because of its color and other common nick names, Chicken Fungus, Chicken Mushroom, Rooster Comb, Polypore soufre (France), Schwefelporling (Germany), Pollo de los bosques (Spanish), (Chinese), It is also know as one of the: “foolproof 4”. ( puff balls, chanterelles, chicken of the woods, morels.)Laetiporus or “Chicken of the Woods” is a bracket fungi. Bracket fungi often grow in semi-circular shapes, looking like parts of the trees or attached to rotten wood stumps and logs, and living trees, and they can be parasitic, *saprotrophic, or both.* A Saprotroph is an organism that gets its energy from non-living organic matter.
Using DNA studies (involving PCR and RFLP), they found that there were at least five, maybe six groups that could be considered different species, and this aligned very well with the morphological, ecological and geographical data. Excerpts From Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month for July 2001Tom Volk's FungiDepartment of BiologyUniversity of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Kingdom: FungiDivision: Basidiomycota - Basidiomycota (/b??s?dio?ma?'ko?t?/) is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom. Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.More specifically, Basidiomycota includes these groups: mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, other polypores, jelly fungi, boletes, chanterelles, earth stars, smuts, bunts, rusts, mirror yeasts, and the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus.Class: AgaricomycetesOrder: Polyporales The name polypores is often used for a group that includesmany of the hard or leathery fungi, which often lack a stem, growing straight out of wood.Family: FomitopsidaceaeGenus: LaetiporusThe name Laetiporus means "with bright pores".
These are the known SPECIES (children) of Laetiporus (lay-tee-pore-us)
- Laetiporus ailaoshanensis -  B.K.Cui & J.Song (2014) Found in southwestern China- Laetiporus baudonii - (Pat.) Ryvar den (1991) Found in South Africa, Yemen - Laetiporus caribensis (Basidiomy cota, Polyporales) Banik & .L.Lindner 2012) Described as a new species from the Caribbean.- Laetiporus cincinnatus (Morgan) Burds., Banik & T.J.Volk (1998)One of a handful of oak-inhabiting Laetiporus species in eastern North America. The white-pored “chicken of the woods”. The first species to be split out from Laetiporus sulphureus was Laeti-porus cincinnatus. It is easy to distinguish between the two species.- Laetiporus conifericola Burds. & Banik (2001) Found in western North America ranging fromCalifornia to Alaska and grows on various conifers.Laetiporus cremeiporus - Y.Ota & T.Hatt. (2010) Grows in cooler temperate areas of China and Japan.Laetiporus discolor - (Klotzsch) Corner (1984)Laetiporus flos-musae Overeem (1927)Laetiporus gilbertsonii Burds. (2001) - A West Coast North America species that grows on various hardwoods such as oak and eucalyptus.Laetiporus huroniensis Burds. & Banik (2001) Grows primarily on Eastern hemlock and is found more often in springtime. The conifer-loving Laetiporus huroniensis of the Great Lakes seems to cause poisoning more often than not.Laetiporus miniatus (P.Karst.) Overeem (1925)Central European mountain forests, Russia, Siberia and western China.including in Korea and Japan.Laetiporus montanus Cerný ex Tomšovský & Jankovský (2009)It is found in mountainous areas of central Europe and in China, where it grows on conifersLaetiporus persicinus (Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Gilb. (1981) commonly known as the white chicken mushroom. It is closely related to the chicken mushroom, or Laetiporus sulphureus. Laetiporus persicinus has a salmon pink cap and white pores. This mushroom grows on dead and living hardwood and softwood trees. WikipediaLaetiporus portentosus (Berk.) Rajchenb. (1995)found in Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Argentina and Chile. common sight on Eucalyptus.Laetiporus squalidus R.M.Pires, Motato-Vásq. & Gugliottta (2016)Described as a new species recorded for first time from Brazil. Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill (1920) Laetiporus zonatus  B.K.Cui & J.Song (2014) *Notice Below*Found in South Africa and Southwestern China growing on Oak.https://www.revolvy.com/page/Laetiporus-zonatus* NOTICE *The phylogenetic relationships of all recognized Laetiporus species were inferredfrom a combined dataset of ITS and nLSU-rDNA sequences, and * L. ailaoshanensis and L. zonatus represent two new lineages in this group.Looking for Mushroom Links How to Identify mushrooms and Where to Find Them. Everything You Ever Wantedto know about Morel Mushrooms and Where to Find Them.Mushrooms in the Yukon.Mushroom Hunting.Mushroom World.The Mycological Identification SiteChampignouf is an automated mushroom identifier software program, you just have to upload a picture to know what kind of mushroom it could be.It knows more than 1000 species, and will suggest you results depending on the photo.The picture to your right is from tyrant farms.comBOOK Hunting - Wild Edible Mushrooms of British ColumbiaBritish Columbia is the second largest mushroom producing province in Canada, after Ontario.
The site now includes 1,046 photos representing some 482 species of fungi.11 Edible Mushrooms in the U.S. (And How to Tell They’re Not Toxic Lookalikes)Off Lawns and GardensMushrooms that grow in Lawns, Gardens, and City Habitats.
October 31, 2006 | category: edibles, fungi, mushrooms, StudentsThis report on mycological poultry was written by Elan Margulies, a formerlymycophagophobic student in PLPA 319.Chicken of the Woods, Laetiporus sulphureus Entering the Mushrooms class I was a mycophagophobe; I was someone who was afraid to eat mushrooms, especially ones that I had collected. Any wild mushroom was too dangerous for me. It was not until I discovered Laetiporus sul-phureus— Chicken of the Woods, that I felt comfortable enough to identify a fungus and then eat it. David Arora remarks in Mushrooms Demystified that this is one of the “fool-proof four” — an unmistakable mushroom.Health Benefits of LaetiporusSome things to think about the next time you sit down to eat a meal of chicken of the woods.The compound (+/-)-laertirobin was isolated from Laetiporus sulphureus growing on black locust tree. Early studies found it enters tumor cells, blocks cell division at a late stage of mitosis, and invokes apoptosis, or programmed cell death (Lear et al., 2009). It has been synthesized and is presently being investigated by Xenobe Research Institute in California for possible treatment on various human cancers.Lovastatin is naturally found in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species), and helps block cholesterol synthesis with the side effects of statin drugs. Work by Lee et al. (2006) found mycelial extracts of oyster mushroom and chicken of the woods showed the highest inhibition rates of HMG-CoA reductase, the limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of cholesterol, by 37.2% and 29.1%, respectively.Laetiporus Sulphureous has antimicrobial properties against the pathogen, Aspergillus flavus (Petrovic et al., 2013). It is also a great source of antioxidants, including quercetin, kaempferol, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid (Olennikov et al., 2011), and it contains lanostanoids – molecules that have the ability to inhibit cancerous growths (Rios et al., 2012). Last but certainly not least Laetiporus sulphureus has potent ability to inhibit the staph bacteria (Staphylococcus Aureus).Acetyl Eburicoic Acid from Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus Suppresses Inflammation in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 CellsThe Huck Institute of Life Sciences comparative metabolomic (metabolite profiling) study of Laetiporus sulphureus was conducted on the basis of ethnomycological information obtained from the Kaffa. The goal of the study was to identify the therapeutic compound unique to this mushroom. Enoxolone (glycyrrhetinic acid) was found to be the compound unique to Laetiporus sulphureus. Enoxolone is the compound responsible for the antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of licorice.
According to myfitnesspal.com, the macronutrient breakdown of 1 serving (100 g) of laetiporus cincinnatus is:14g Protein6g Carbs (3 of which consist of dietary fiber)1g Fat (monounsaturated)This means chicken of the woods (and other mushrooms) can serve as an awesome protein source for anyone looking for a vegetarian protein alternative. Although each variety of mushroom has a unique nutrient profile, the NYT points out that mushrooms in general: “contain a modest amount of fiber and over a dozen minerals and vitamins, including copper, potassium, magnesium, zinc and a number of B vitamins such as folate. Mushrooms are also high in antioxidants like selenium and glutathione, or GSH, substances believed to protect cells from damage and reduce chronic disease and inflammation.Some studies suggest mushrooms are the richest dietary source of another antioxidant called ergothioneine, or ERGO, which is also present in large amounts in red beans, oat bran and liver. ERGO and other antioxidants are primarily concentrated in the caps, not the stems.”The edible mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus as potential source of natural antioxidants.Two cups of pieces and slices add up to only 30 calories. They are considered a good source of fiber, protein, vitamin C, and vitamins B, D, and K, healthy food!
Safety & Wild Mushrooms
All wild mushrooms must be thoroughly cooked before eating. Never sample raw wild mushrooms! Get the help of an experienced mushroom picker and learn about the local species in your area. Check and see if there are any local Mycological Associations in your area. A good place to check out is namyco.org/clubs.php where the experts are.Consult a reliable in the field waterproof guidebook with photos, and ensure that all identification points listed match your specimens.When trying a new wild mushroom for the first time, eat just a small portion; some people react badly to mushrooms that others can eat with no problem. This is very common!Some wild mushrooms don’t mix well with alcohol, and reactions differ from person to person.When in doubt, throw it out. Never, ever eat a wild mushroom unless you are 100% sure of its identity.Teresa Marrone is the coauthor of two photographic mushroom field guides: Mushrooms of the Upper Midwest (with Kathy Yerich) and Mushrooms of the Northeast (with Walt Sturgeon).Where can I pick mushrooms?Mushroom picking is an unregulated activity. It is permitted on provincial forest land, but illegal in provincial parks. On private land, permission is required. Note that there may be private land within forest tenures including tree farm licences and woodlots.Permission to pick mushrooms is required on: leased public land private land First Nations reserve landsMushroom picking is NOT permitted on: national or provincial parks federal defence lands protected areas such as ecological or special reserves recreation areas, including Forest Service recreation sites and trails
All Things “Chicken of the Woods”
“Laetiporus cincinnatus has recently beenrecognized as a separate species from Laetiporussulphureus (Fr.) Murr.”
“(Morphological and molecular evidence for two new species of Laetiporus (Basidiomycota, Poly-porales) from southwestern China.)”
These were found in late fall when the leaves have just fallen and the first frost has just passed. The pines are starting to just happen and the days are getting shorter.
I am providing links to some great web sites that will help you find edi-ble mushrooms in your neighbor-hood or in the forest.
Maitake mushrooms (Japanese name), locally known as Hen of the Woods mushrooms
IMPORTANT NOTICE The TEXT on this Webpage regarding EDIBLE WILD MUSHROOMS is as important to yourSAFETY as the photographs! IF IN DOUBT, THROW THE MUSHROOM OUT!Edibility traits for the different species have not been well documented!Some people react differently than others.Chicken of the Woods or SULPHUR SHELF MUSHROOMS GROWING ON ANY CONIFER TREE (PINE, HEMLOCK, SPRUCE, FIR, LARCH/TAMARACK, ETC.), EUCALYPTUS, OR LOCUST TREES SHOULD NOT BE EATEN!Also, as with a number of wild mushrooms and many other foods (e.g. shellfish, peanuts, and milk products), some individuals have allergic reactions to this particular species. –David Fischer, Author of Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America (1992, Univ. of Texas Press)The Mycophagist's Ten CommandmentsFrom the Cornell Univerity Mushroom Blog comes this warning...In western north America, true Laetiporus sulphureus does not occur, but at least two lookalikes do: Laetiporus gilbertsonii (on eucalyptus, and more frequently implicated in poisonings) and Laetiporus conifericola (on conifers). If you are unlucky, or sensitive to whatever unidentified toxin is in these, you may experience vomiting, chills, and perhaps mild hallucinations–I haven’t heard of any deaths. Yet there are many (probably over 90% of you) who eat these species with impunity, so it’s hard to know what to advise, except caution.https://blog.mycology.cornell.edu/2006/10/31/eating-the-chicken-of-the-woods/